E. Joe Johnson, Idealized male friendship in French narrative from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, p69. A fountain or pool. His patronage of Renaissance thought led him to reform the Roman University, to build the Church of St. Andrew in Rome, and to appoint Palestrina choirmaster of St. Peter’s, with Michelangelo as the church’s principal architect. He lived mostly in a beautiful villa just outside the Porta del Popolo. He spent the bulk of his time, and a great deal of papal money, on entertainments at the Villa Giulia, created for him by Vignola, but more significant and lasting was his patronage of the great Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whom he brought to Rome as his maestro di cappella, Giorgio Vasari, who supervised the design of the Villa Giulia, and Michelangelo, who worked there. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Julius-III, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Pope Julius III. As a cardinal, he served as co-president of the Council of Trent in 1545, with cardinals Cervini (later Pope Marcellus II) and Pole. Born Giuliano della Rovere on December 5, 1443 in Albissola (in the Savona region), he was the nephew of the future Pope Sixtus IV, Francesco della Rovere. Matthias Wivel, our Curator of 16th-century Italian paintings, gives a talk about the portrait of Julius II by Raphael. Popular for his affable manner and respected for his administrative skills, he was twice Governor of Rome and was entrusted by the papal curia with several duties. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Pope, (Latin papa, from Greek pappas, “father”), the title, since about the 9th century, of the bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. Julius III was a Tuscan, which explained Cosimo de Medici's anxiety to secure his election. Pope Julius III (Latin: Iulius III; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555. Historical Events. Burkle-Young, Francis A., and Michael Leopoldo Doerrer. "Julius III". He was the son of a famous Roman jurist, studied jurisprudence at Perugia and Siena, and theology under the Dominican, Ambrosius Catharinus. However, Julius soon came to terms with the duke and France and in 1553 suspended the meetings of the council. Innocenzo del Monte was a teenaged beggar found in the streets of Parma who was hired by the family as a lowly hall boy in their primary residence,[10] the boy's age being variously given as 14, 15, or 17 years. Which of the following features could be found in more exotic grottos? Giuliano's chance of being elected was now better than at any previous election. Unfortunately, military and political problems led to its second suspension in 1552. Paul III died on 10 November 1549, and in the ensuing conclave the forty-eight cardinals were divided into three factions: of the primary factions, the Imperial faction wished to see the Council of Trent reconvened, the French faction wished to see it dropped. He was buried in Rome in the Del Monte family chapel. Buontalenti. Pope Julius II. From there he passed the time in comfort, emerging from time to time to make timid efforts to reform the Church through the reestablishment of the reform commissions. The pope died and political unrest followed. [8] In February 1555, an envoy was dispatched from the English Parliament to Julius to inform him of the country's formal submission, but the pope died before the envoy reached Rome. He tried to use his connections in the College of Cardinals to plead his cause, but his influence waned, and he died in obscurity. He chose Julius as his papal name in honor of Pope Julius III (1940-1952). Achievements as pope. Thomas Beard, in the Theatre of God's judgement (1597) saying it was Julius' "custome ... to promote none to ecclesiastical livings, save only his buggerers". Julius III (1487 – 1555), was a career diplomat who became pope and head of the Papal States from 1550 until his death five years later. The Romans proclaimed that if Pope Julius II had not been a great pope, he had been a good king.. Giuliano della Rovere, born in poverty at Albisola in Liguria in 1443, became one of the most powerful of the Renaissance popes. [4], Julius' papacy was marked by scandals, the most notable of which is centered around the pope's adoptive nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He attempted to stop cardinals from receiving too many benefices and to restore monastic discipline. Updates? He was choleric but had a good-natured and forgiving disposition. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 2) The pope who had an affair that led to a son (who would also become pope) 3) The shocking and evil scandal of Pope Julius III. It was built as a resting place for the pope and was conceived as a place of entertainment rather than as permanent home. Expecting to find the New Jerusalem, he found an open sewer instead! Why was it so shocking when Pope Julius II wanted to demolish St. Peter's Basilica? Pope Julius II (Italian: Papa Giulio II; Latin: Iulius II; born Giuliano della Rovere; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Birth and Education. [9] His inactivity during the last three years of his pontificate may have been caused by the frequent and severe attacks of gout. Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius II, 1511, oil on poplar, 108.7 x 81 cm (National Gallery, London) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker In 1551, at the request of Emperor Charles V, he consented to the reopening of the council of Trent and entered into a league against the duke of Parma and Henry II of France (1547–59), causing the War of Parma. Following the death of Pope John XII on 9 March 2015, a papal conclave elected Ciano as his successor on 15 March. In Italy, it was said that Julius showed the impatience of a "lover awaiting a mistress" while awaiting Innocenzo's arrival in Rome and boasted of the boy's prowess in bed, while the Venetian ambassador reported that Innocenzo Del Monte shared the pope's bed "as if he [Innocenzo] were his [Julius'] own son or grandson. He was a lover of war, who led his own armies; and a lover of art, commissioning some of the greatest works in western history: Raphael's decorated rooms in the Vatican and Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling. They head for Florence. The new pope took the name of Julius III. Elected pope on Feb. 7, 1550, he realized that a reform of the church was urgent, and he appointed a commission that recommended resumption of the Council of Trent, which Julius reopened on May 1, 1551. Julius is the third youngest Pope to be elected at the age of 77 and the 109th from Fabria. The portrait shows Giuliano della Rovere, Pope Julius II, elected in 1503 after one of the shortest conclaves ever (he bribed everyone). Positions in the Church Omissions? [12][13] The courtier and poet Girolamo Muzio in a letter of 1550 to Ferrante Gonzaga, governor of Milan, wrote: "They write many bad things about this new pope; that he is vicious, proud, and odd in the head",[14] and the Pope's enemies made capital of the scandal. A tomb for Pope Julius. ... Art History: The Movement III: Painting. Pope Julius III (Latin: Iulius III; 10 September 1487 – 23 March 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from 7 February 1550 to his death in 1555. During his pontificate, Catholicism was restored in England under Queen Mary in 1553. Del Monte was the nephew of Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, Archbishop of Manfredonia (1506–1511). Julius III February 7, 1550 - March 23, 1555 . The new pope took the name of Julius III. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Glorified in Perugia The first thing the new Pope Julius II did was to decree that any future papal election that had anything to do with simony would be invalid. [6], Julius increasingly contented himself with Italian politics and retired to his luxurious palace at the Villa Giulia, which he had built for himself close to the Porta del Popolo. A patron of the arts, he commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. He allegedly had a long love affair with Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte, his adoptive nephew, which was a cause of public scandal. ! As pope, he took some half hearted stabs at reforming what had become a notoriously corrupt Catholic Church, but he much preferred to … glbtq.com. Yet the façade of Palazzo Comunale still shows, disguised as decorations, the symbols of Julius III. After a career as a distinguished and effective diplomat, he was elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate after the death of Paul III. He attended the universities of Perugia and Siena. Corrections? The Farnese cardinal’s diplomatic skills made him an invaluable aid to the five pontiffs in whose election he participated—Pius III, Julius II, Leo X, Adrian VI, and Clement VII—before he himself emerged as the Roman pontiff on Oct. 13, 1534. Pope Julius II was head of the Roman Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death in 1513. Julius showered his favourite with benefices, including the commendatario of the abbeys of Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy and Saint Zeno in Verona, and, later, of the abbeys of Saint Saba, Miramondo, Grottaferrata and Frascati, among others. Pope Julius III was born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte in Rome in 1487. In fulfilment of promises made in the conclave, Julius restored Parma to Ottavio Farnese a few days after his accession. Julius II is known to be a causing contributor to the reformation, as his focus on the arts and politics alienated northern Europe. The ideal he set himself to realise was an existence of animal gratification untrammelled by any unpleasant duties. [5], Henry had threatened to withdraw recognition from the Pope if the new Pope was pro-Habsburg in orientation, and when Julius III reconvened the Council of Trent, Henry blocked French bishops from attending and did not enforce the papal decrees in France. In 1511, monk Martin Luther visited Roma. He was a friend of the Jesuits, to whom he granted a fresh confirmation in 1550; and through the papal bull, Dum sollicita of August 1552, he founded the Collegium Germanicum, and granted an annual income.[7]. The pope's lack of interest in political or ecclesiastical affairs caused dismay among his contemporaries. Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius II, 1511, oil on poplar, 108.7 x 81 cm (National Gallery, London) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker. Pope Julius III reigned over the papal court, entirely at the mercy of his young lover. Pope Julius II was known as the "Warrior Pope" because he was a true successor of Gaius Julius Caesar. But, when Farnese applied to France for aid against the emperor, Julius allied himself with the emperor, declared Farnese deprived of his fief, and sent troops under the command of his nephew Giambattista del Monte to co-operate with Duke Gonzaga of Milan in the capture of Parma. All the way up to the sixteenth century, there have been at least another 16 pedophile Popes known to historians, the last being a certain Pope Julius III (1487-1555). PRE-PAPAL BACKGROUND . Pope Julius III had a great interest in this construction and spent huge amounts of money for the completion of the town. In the novel Q by Luther Blissett, Julius appears toward the end of the book as a moderate cardinal favouring religious tolerance, in the upheavals caused by the Reformation and the Roman Church's response during the 16th century. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [4], At the start of his reign Julius had seriously desired to bring about a reform of the Catholic Church and to reconvene the Council of Trent, but very little was actually achieved during his five years in office. His reputation, and that of the Catholic Church, were greatly harmed by his scandal-ridden relationship with his adopted nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte. Even after Julius III suspended the Council again he proceeded to bully the pope into taking his side against the Habsburgs by threatening schism. Julius III, original name Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, (born Sept. 10, 1487, Rome [Italy]—died March 23, 1555, Rome), pope from 1550 to 1555. 216 th Pontiff (1503-1513). 4) The pope who was called “a demon from Hell” 5) … With his help, the cousins assemble an army. To ensure his success he made great promises to the cardinals, and did not hesitate to … Heraldic symbols of Pope Julius III Bologna was the second city of the Papal State but retains very few coats of arms, because in 1797, under the influence of the French Revolution, all signs of the Popes were destroyed. Crompton, Louis (2004). The Catholic Encyclopedia, Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes, "Notorious Cardinals: A Rogue's Gallery of Powerful Prelates", International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Julius_III&oldid=996795049, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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